Literature and Resources



RefTVS1000: An open randomized controlled multicenter clinical investigation with an intra-vaginal device for stress urinary incontinence in comparison to using standard of care.

RefTVS2000: Efemia Impact on Quality of Life, Result Summary document market survey.

RefTVS3000 : Efemia Impact on quality of life, result summary from 40 participants, with an average age of 58 yearswere recruited among female readers of the Swedish monthly lifestyle magazine Femina.

Elaine Miller – Pelvic Floor Exercises Article References:

(1) Gynaecol Can. 2018 Apr;40(4):418-425. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2017.10.022. Pregnancy-Associated Pelvic Floor Health Knowledge and Reduction of Symptoms: The PREPARED Randomized Controlled Trial. Momoe T Hyakutake, Vanessa Han, Lauren Baerg, Nicole A Koenig, Geoffrey W Cundiff, Terry Lee, Roxana Geoffrion.

(2) Int Urogynecol J. 2017 Mar 14. doi: 10.1007/s00192-017-3309-4. [Epub ahead of print] Pregnant women’s awareness, knowledge and beliefs about pelvic floor muscles: a cross-sectional survey. Hill AM, McPhail SM, Wilson JM, Berlach RG.

(3) ICS statement

(4) Ami and Dar 2018, Ami NB, Dar G, 2018 What is the most effective verbal instruction for correctly contracting the pelvic floor muscles? Neurourology and Urodynamics 37, 8, 2904-2910

(5) Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;1

(6) Multi-centre study in Australia found that 84% of were cured of SUI with Physiotherapy treatment (Neuman 2006) 

Huebner M, Riegel K, Hinninghofen H, et al. Pelvic floor muscle training for stress urinary incontinence: A randomized, controlled trial comparing different conservative therapies. Physiother Res Int. 2010 doi: 10.1002/pri.489.

Herbruck LF. Stress urinary incontinence: prevention, management, and provider education. Urol Nurs. 2008;28:200–6. quiz 7

Elaine Miller – Exercise References

(1) Brown, Wendy J, Yvette D Miller – “Too wet to exercise? Leaking Urine as a Barrier to Physical Activity in Women. J of sci and medicine in sport 4.4 (2001): 373-378 

(2) Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Frank W. Booth, Ph.D.,1 Christian K. Roberts, Ph.D.,2 and Matthew J. Laye, Ph.D.3. Compr Physiol. 2012 Apr; 2(2): 1143–1211.

(3) Gender differences in coronary heart disease. A.H.E.M. Maas and Y.E.A. Appelman. Neth Heart J. 2010 Dec; 18(12): 598–602. doi: 10.1007/s12471-010-0841-y

(4)  Long-term health benefits of physical activity – a systematic review of longitudinal studies. Miriam Reiner, Christina Niermann, Darko Jekauc, and Alexander Woll 

Head et al 2012, Khattab et al 2007. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 813.  10.1186/1471-2458-13-813


(6)  Ground Reaction Forces at Different Speeds of Human Walking and Running. J Nilsson , A Thorstensson. Acta Physiol Scand. 1989 Jun;136(2):217-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.1989.tb08655.x.

 (7) PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb; 214(2): 164–171. Ingrid E. Nygaard, M.D., M.S.1 and Janet M. Shaw, Ph.D.2

 (8) BJSM Ready, steady…GO! Ensuring postnatal women are run-ready! Gráinne Donnelly , Emma Brockwell, Tom Goom

 (9) Vaginal Pessary in Women With Symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Rachel Y K Cheung , Jacqueline H S Lee, L L Lee, Tony K H Chung, Symphorosa S C Chan. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jul;128(1):73-80. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001489.


Elaine Miller – Bladders-  References

(1) Coyne KS, Sexton CC, Irwin DE, et al. The impact of overactive bladder, incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life, work productivity, sexuality and emotional well-being in men and women: results from the EPIC study. BJU Int. 2008;101:1388–95.

(2)  Sexton CC, Coyne KS, Vats V, et al. Impact of overactive bladder on work productivity in the United States: results from EpiLUTS. Am J Manag Care. 2009;15:S98–107.

Markland AD, Goode PS, Redden DT, et al. Prevalence of urinary incontinence in men: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey. J Urol. 2010;184:1022–7.

 Melville JL, Delaney K, Newton K, Katon W. Incontinence severity and major depression in incontinent women. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:585–92.

Melville JL, Fan MY, Rau H, et al. Major depression and urinary incontinence in women: temporal associations in an epidemiologic sample. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:490 e1–7.

 Sung VW, West DS, Hernandez AL, et al. Association between urinary incontinence and depressive symptoms in overweight and obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:557 e1–5.

 (3) Jacome C, Oliveira D, Marques A, Sa-Couto P. Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence among female athletes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011;114:60–3.

 Nygaard IE, Thompson FL, Svengalis SL, Albright JP. Urinary incontinence in elite nulliparous athletes. Obstet Gynecol. 1994;84:183–7.

 Carls C. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in high school and college-age female athletes in the midwest: implications for education and prevention. Urologic Nursing. 2007;27:21–4.

 Thyssen HH, Clevin L, Olesen S, Lose G. Urinary incontinence in elite female athletes and dancers. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2002;13:15–7.

(4) Nygaard I, Girts T, Fultz NH, et al. Is urinary incontinence a barrier to exercise in women? Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:307–14.

 (5) Fitzgerald MP, Stablein U, Brubaker L. Urinary habits among asymptomatic women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;187:1384–8.

 Latini JM, Mueller E, Lux MM, et al. Voiding frequency in a sample of asymptomatic American men. J Urol. 2004;172:980–4.

 Lukacz ES, Whitcomb EL, Lawrence JM, et al. Urinary frequency in community-dwelling women: what is normal? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:552 e1–7.

 (6) Lee JG, Wein AJ, Levin RM. The effect of caffeine on the contractile response of the rabbit urinary bladder to field stimulation. Gen Pharmacol. 1993;24:1007–11.

Arya LA, Myers DL, Jackson ND. Dietary caffeine intake and the risk for detrusor instability: a case-control study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:85–9.

 Dallosso HM, McGrother CW, Matthews RJ, Donaldson MM. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 2003;92:69–77.

Dasgupta J, Elliott RA, Doshani A, Tincello DG. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca2+ influx. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;217:216–24.

 Lohsiriwat S, Hirunsai M, Chaiyaprasithi B. Effect of caffeine on bladder function in patients with overactive bladder symptoms. Urol Ann. 2011;3:14–8.

 Shorter B, Lesser M, Moldwin RM, Kushner L. Effect of comestibles on symptoms of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 2007;178:145–52.

 (7) Beetz R. Mild dehydration: a risk factor of urinary tract infection? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(Suppl 2):S52–8

 (8) Wyman JF, Burgio KL, Newman DK. Practical aspects of lifestyle modifications and behavioural interventions in the treatment of overactive bladder and urgency urinary incontinence. Int J Clin Pract. 2009;63:1177–91

 Jackson SL, Scholes D, Boyko EJ, et al. Predictors of urinary incontinence in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:855–62.

 Moore EE, Hawes SE, Scholes D, et al. Sexual intercourse and risk of symptomatic urinary tract infection in post-menopausal women. J Gen Intern Med. 2008;23:595–9

Persson J, Wolner-Hanssen P, Rydhstroem H. Obstetric risk factors for stress urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96:440–5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

 Meyer S, Schreyer A, De Grandi P, Hohlfeld P. The effects of birth on urinary continence mechanisms and other pelvic-floor characteristics. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92:613–8.

Hannah ME, Hannah WJ, Hodnett ED, et al. Outcomes at 3 months after planned cesarean vs planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. JAMA. 2002;287:1822–31.

 Hirsch AG, Minassian VA, Dilley A, et al. Parity is not associated with urgency with or without urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2010;21:1095–102

 (9)  Coyne KS, Zhou Z, Thompson C, Versi E. The impact on health-related quality of life of stress, urge and mixed urinary incontinence. BJU Int. 2003;92:731–5

 Elstad EA, Taubenberger SP, Botelho EM, Tennstedt SL. Beyond incontinence: the stigma of other urinary symptoms. J Adv Nurs. 2010;66:2460–70.

 Liberman JN, Hunt TL, Stewart WF, et al. Health-related quality of life among adults with symptoms of overactive bladder: results from a US community-based survey. Urology. 2001;57:1044–50.

 Wilson MM. Urinary incontinence: a treatise on gender, sexuality, and culture. Clin Geriatr Med. 2004;20:565–70. ix.

 NICE Quality standard [QS77]. Urinary incontinence in women. January 2015. [Cited 28 August 2018] Available from:

Newman DK, Borello-France D, Sung VW. Structured behavioral treatment research protocol for women with mixed urinary incontinence and overactive bladder symptoms. Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2017;37:1;14-26. [Cited 28 August 2018] Available from:

Clinical Literature and Resources

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